Political anthropology, Religion and Gender in the Balkans and Eastern Mediterranean countries
Instructor(s): Fotini Tsibiridou

Course abstract:

The cross-section of the experience of gender with religion and politics provides the opportunity to observe how the gendered self  are constructed through power policies and hegemonies in the Aegean neighborhoods and outskirts. The goal is to understand gendered experience in relation to nation, state and religion, in local / global coupling and beyond the dominant assumptions and stereotypes of Balkanism and Orientalism.

Through ethnographic studies and visual material, with the tools of political anthropology, cultural critique and post-colonial theory, the course focuses on two neighboring geographical areas (Balkans – Mediterranean). We focus on internal and external ethical values ​​that lead to the establishment of binary gendered discrimination (i.e. honor and shame), stereotypical representations and political constructions over great and small traditions regarding religion(Islam and Orthodoxy), cultural regions (Mediterranean Sea, Western Balkans), ideologies and conditions (Globalization, post colonial and post socialist conditions).

In particular, we identify similarities and differences in gendered practices and rituals of collective belonging (in community, nation, state, religious faith, minority status, resistance, and protest). We are highlighting the instrumental use of femininity and masculinity, under the constant subordination of the former to the second, as perceived through practices of negative reciprocity, conflict and discrimination (social control, whitchcraft, religious hierarchy, social repression, nationalism) and deconstructed through feminist critique. The latter, is an integral part of the overall post-colonial and cultural critique that feeds into the analysis of gender, religion and politics in the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean.

The weekly lessons are divided into 12 sections and include two-hour lectures, hands-on exercises on theoretical issues or case studies through presentations and / or screening / discussion on visual ethnographic material from the field (documentaries, fiction films). In section 13 students present work. Supporting material is provided for each module (working texts, bibliography, and visual material posted electronically on compus see ereserve and Miscellaneous) while a more general supporting bibliography is provided. Exams are open-ended.

Indicative bibliography:

Anjum, O. (2007). Islam as a Discursive Tradition. Talal Asad and his Interlocutors. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and Middle East , 27 (3), 656-672.

Albera,. D. & Couroucli, M. (2012). Sharing Sacret Spaces in the Mediterranean. Christians, Muslims and Jews at Shrines and Sanctuaries. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Abu-Lughod, Lila. 1986. Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Abu-Lughod, L. (2002) “Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others” American Anthropologist 104 (3): 783–90.

 Agathangelou, Α.Μ. and Nerzat Soguk (eds) (2013) Arab Revolutions and World Transformations London: Routledge, 2013.

Altınay, A. G. & Arat, Y. (eds) (2009). Violence Against Women in Turkey: A Nationwide Survey. Istanbul: Punto, 2009, www.kadinayoneliksiddet.org/English.html)

Antoun, R.T. (2000), “Civil Society, Tribal Process and Change in Jordan: An Anthropological View” Journal of Middle East Studies 32 (2000): 441-463.

Απαντουράι, Α. (2014), Νεωτερικότητα χωρίς σύνορα Πολιτισμικές διαστάσεις της παγκοσμιοποίησης, Εκδόσεις Αλεξάνδρεια, Αθήνα .

Arendt, A. (1989) Lectures on Kantʼs Political Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Asad, T. (2003). Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Athanassiou, A. (2011). “Becoming precarious through regimes of gender, capital and nation”, in P. Papaelias (ed), Hot Spots: Beyond the “Greek Crisis”, Cultural Anthropology, http://culanth.org/?q=node/445

Βαρίκα, Ε. (2000) Με διαφορετικό πρόσωπο. Φύλο, διαφορά και οικουμενικότητα. [E. Varikas, With different face. Gender, difference and universality] Αthens: Κατάρτι.

Bartsidis, M. (2014). Διατομικότητα. Κείμενα για μια οντολογία της σχέσης. [Transindividuality. Essay for an ontology of Relations]. Transl. Loukia Mano. Athens: Nisos.

Boscovic, A. (2005) Distinguishing ‘self’ and ‘other’. Anthropology and national identity in former Yugoslavia. Anthropology Today, vol.21 (2) 2005; 5-13.

Buchowski, M. (1996), “The sifting meaning of civil and civic society in Poland”, in C. Hann, E. Dunn (eds) Civil Society. Challenging Western Models. London: Routledge.

Carrithers, M., Collins, S., Lukes, S. (eds) (1985) The Category of the Person: Anthropology, Philosophy, History, Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, J.K. (1965) Honour, Family and Patronage: A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greet Mountain Community. Oxford: Oxford University.

Cultural Anthropology Online, “Cosmopolitanism: Conversation with Authors,” http://www.culanth.org/curated_collections/13-cosmopolitanism/discussions/8-cosmopolitanism-conversation- with-the-authors.

Demetriou, O. 2013. Capricious Borders: Minority, Population, and Counter-Conduct between Greece and Turkey Oxford: Berghahn.

Doja, A. (2001). The Politics of Religion in the Reconstruction of Identities: The Albanian Situation, Tirana: AIIS Press, 2001 [English-Albanian Bilingual Reprint]. (http://archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00486061).

Doja, A. (2008) “Instrumental Border of Gender and Religious Conversion in the Balkans. Religion, State and Society, vol 36 (1): 55-63

Duijzings, G. Religion and Politics of Identity in Kosovo . New York: Columbia U.P.

Δραγώνα, Θ. B. Ersanli, Α. Φραγκουδάκη (2006), «Πώς οι έλληνες και τούρκοι μαθητές αντιλαμβάνονται την ιστορία, το έθνος και τη δημοκρατία». Στο Θάλεια Δραγώνα & Φαρούκ Μπιρτέκ (επιμ.) Ελλάδα και Τουρκία. Πολίτης και Εθνος-κράτος. Αθήνα: Αλεξάνδρεια 2006: 303-350.

Dreyfus, H.L. (1983) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Eickelman, D. (1992) “Mass Higher Education and the religious Imagination in Contemporary Arab Societies” American Ethnologist 19(4): 643-655.

Eickelman, D. (2002) “The Arab “Street” and the Middle East’s Democracy Deficit” Naval War College Review LV (4): 39-48.

Dipesh Chakrabarty, D. (200O) Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Douzinas, K. (2013) Philosophy and Resistance in the Crisis: Greece and the Future of Europe. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Geros, P. (2007) When Christianity Matters: The Production and Manipulation of Communalism in Damascus, Syria, PHD. Thesis U.o London.

Γέρος, Π. «Επανεξετάζοντας τις έννοιες του «Ισλάμ» και της «Ευρώπης»: Θεωρητικά και μεθοδολογικά ζητήματα» Επιθεώρηση Κοινωνικών Ερευνών 127, Γ/ (2008)σ. 45-72

Gilmore, D. D. (1987) “Honor, Honesty, Shame: Male Status in Contemporary Andalusia.” In Honor and Shame and the Unity of the Mediterranean. Ed. D. D. Gilmore. Pages 90–103. American Anthropological Association Special Publication 22. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.

Γκλέντχιλ, Τζ. (2013),Οι μεταμφιέσεις της εξουσίας Ανθρωπολογικές οπτικές για την πολιτική, Εκδόσεις Αλεξάνδρεια, Αθήνα 2013.

Godelier, M. Dawod, H.«Οι ανθρωπιστικές και κοινωνικές επιστήμες απέναντι στον ουαχαμπισμό και στα γεγονότα της 11ης Σεπτεμβρίου 2001» στο Χ. Δερμετζόπουλος, Μ. Σπυριδάκης (επιμ.) Ανθρωπολογία, Κουλτούρα και Πολιτική. Αθήνα (2004): Μεταίχμιο, σ. 139-157. Susan Buck-Morss , Πέρα από τον τρόμο. Ισλάμ, κριτική θεωρία και αριστερά. Αθήνα (2003): Αλεξάνδρεια.

Green S. (2005) Notes from the Balkans. Locating Marginality and Ambiguity on the Greek-Albanian Border Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Gudac-Dodic, V. (2010) “Under the aegis of the family: Women in Serbia”, The Journal of International Social Research, vol. 3 (13): 110-119.

Gupta, A. and Ferguson, J.(επιμ.) Culture, Power, Place. Explorations in Critical Anthropology. Ντάραμ(1997): Duke University Press.

Hall, S. Gieben, B. (επιμ.), «Η Δύση και οι Λοιποί: Λόγος και Εξουσία», στο Η διαμόρφωση της νεωτερικότητας, Οικονομία, Κοινωνία, Πολιτική, Πολιτισμός, Αθήνα (2003): Σαββάλας, σ. 403-480.

Halpern, J. & K. Kaser, R. A. Wagner, (1996)..“Patriarchy in the Balkans: Temporal and Cross-Cultural Approaches.” The History of the Family 1 (4) 425-442.

Harris, O. (επιμ.) (1997): Inside and outside the law : anthropological studies of authority and ambiguity, New York : Routledge

Harvey, D.(2007) [1990] Η κατάσταση της μετανεωτερικότητας. Σιερεύνυση των απαρχών της πολιτισμικής μεταβολής. Αθήνα: Μεταίχμιο.

Helms, E. (2008) Reviewed, “East and West Kiss: Gender, Orientalism, and Balkanism in Muslim-Majority Bosnia-Herzegovina” Slavic Review, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Spring, 2008), pp. 88-119

Herzfeld, M. (1980). Honor and shame: problems in the comparative analysis of moral systems. Man, 15, 339–351.

Herzfeld, M. (1992): The social production of indifference, The University of Chicago Press

Hirschon, R. Ρ. (eds) (2003) Crossing the Aegean. An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey. Berghahn.

Hirschkind, Ch. (2001) “Civic Virtue and Religious Reason: An Islamic counterpublic” Cultural Anthropology 16(1): 3-34.

Inda, Ξ.Χ. (ed.) (2005) Anthropologies of Modernity: Foucault, Governmentality and Life Politics. Blackwell Publishing.

International Centre for Minority Studies (1995) Relations of Compatibility and Incompatibility Between Christian And Muslims in Bulgaria. Sofia.

Kandiyoti, D. & Saktanber, A. (eds) Fragments of Culture. The Everyday of Modern Turkey. London: I.B. Tauris.

Kaneff, D. (2002): The shame and pride of market activity: morality, identity and trading in post-socialist rural Bulgaria, στο: Mandel, Ruth and Humphrey, Caroline (editors) (2002): Markets and moralities: ethnographies of postsocialism, Oxford : Berg.

Kogacioglu, D. “Η ιδιότητα του πολίτη εντός πλαισίου. Επανεξετάζοντας τις σχέσεις των γυναικών με το νόμο στην Τουρκία» Στο Θάλεια Δραγώνα & Φαρούκ Μπιρτέκ (επιμ.) Ελλάδα και Τουρκία. Πολίτης και Εθνος-κράτος. Αθήνα: Αλεξάνδρεια 2006: 273-302.

Kokoschka, A. (2009) “Islamizing the Market? Advertizing, Products, and Consumption in an Islamic Framework in Syria”, in Joana Pink (eds) Muslim Societies in the Age of Mass Consumption. Politics, Culture and Identity between the Local and the Global, Cambridge Scholars Pub. :225-240.Κοινωνικό Εργαστήριο Θεσσαλονίκης [συλλογικό]. Λόγοι, πολιτικές, ζωή τον καιρό της κρίσης. ΕΝΕΚΕΝ: Θεσσαλονίκη (2013): 85-105.

Lee Bowen, D. & Evelyn A. Early (eds) (1993), Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East, Indiana University Press.

Low, S. (2003). “Embodied Space(s). Anthropological Theories of Body, Space, and Culture”. Space and Culture, vol.6 (1): 9-18.

Mahmood, S. (2009). Religious Reason and Secular Affect : An Incommensurable Divide? Critical Inquiery 35, 836-862.

Majid, Α. (2000). Unveiling Traditions: Postcolonial Islam in a Polycentric World. Duke University Press.

Μάρκου, A. (επιμ.) (2010), Ανασυνθέσεις και νέες δυναμικές στις βαλκανικές κοινωνίες μετά το 1990. Αθήνα: Ηρόδοτος.

Μουφ, Σ. (2010), Επί του πολιτικού. Αθήνα, εκδ. Εκκρεμές.

Μπαρτσίδης, M. και Φ. Τσιμπιρίδου, «Για την επιστροφή της πολιτικής ηθικής: Παγκοσμιοτοπικά κινήματα «αξιοπρέπειας»», ΘΕΣΕΙΣ, τεύχος 126, 2014, σσ. 43-74.

Mustafa, M. & A. Young, (2008) Feud Narratives: Contemporary deployments of Kanun in Shala valley, Northern Albania. Anthropological Notebook 14(2): 87-107.

Narotzky, S. (2006) “The Production of Knowledge and the Production of Hegemony: Anthropological Theory and Political Struggles in Spain”, in World Anthropologies. Disciplinary Transformations within Systems of Power. Oxford: Berg: 133-156.

Narotzky S. & Smith G. (2006): Immediate struggles: people, power and place in rural Spain, University Presses Of California, Columbia And Princeton.

Navaro-Yashin, Y. (2002). Faces of the State. Secularism and Public Life in Turkey. Princeton: Princeton U.P.

Nitsiakos, V. (2010) On the Borders. Transborder Mobility, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries on the Albania-Greek Frontier. Berlin: LIT Verlag.

Οικονομίδου, Θ. (2004), Καλωσήλθατε στη Ραμάλα, Αθήνα, Κριτική.

Pina-Cabral, J. (1989) «The Mediterranean as a Category. Regional Comparison: a Critical Review», Current Anthropology, Volume 30, pp. 339 – 406.

Pardo, I. (2004). Between Morality and the Law: Corruption, anthropology and comparative society. Ashgate Publishing.

Parla, A. The “Honor” of the State: Virginity Examinations in Turkey. Feminist Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Spring, 2001), pp. 65-88.

Peristiany, J. G. (Ed.). (1965). Honour and shame: The values of Mediterranean society. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Peristiany, J. G., and J. Pitt-Rivers, eds. (1992) Honour and Grace in Anthropology. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Ρακόπουλος, Θ. (2012) «Η γη ως δικαίωμα: νόμος, κοινότητα, δημεύσεις και γειτονίες στην περίπτωση των «κοοπερατίβων αντιμαφίας» (Σικελία), Σύγχρονα Θέματα 16(1):

Ribeiro, G.L. And Escobar (eds), A. (2006), World Anthropologies. Dicsiplinary Transformations within Systems of Power. Oxford: Berg.

Ροζάκου, Κ. & Ε. Γκαρά (επιμ.) Ελληνικά παράδοξα. Πατρωνία, Κοινωνία πολιτών, βία. Αθήνα: Αλεξάνδρεια (2013): 205-238.

Said, E. W , «Σύγκρουση λόγω άγνοιας», στο Χ. Δερμετζόπουλος, Μ. Σπυριδάκης (επιμ.) Ανθρωπολογία, Κουλτούρα και Πολιτική. Αθήνα Μεταίχμιο (2004), σ. 129-138.

Said, E. W , Οριενταλισμός, Αθήνα (1996) [1978]: Νεφέλη.

Said, E. W. Καλύπτοντας το Ισλάμ. Πώς τα ΜΜΕ και οι Αναλυτές καθορίζουν την εικόνα που έχουμε για τον υπόλοιπο κόσμο. Αθήνα (2002): Νεφέλη.

Sharma A. and A. Gupta (eds.) (2006) Anthropology of the State: A reader. Blackwell Publishing.

Schielke, S. (2007) “Hegemonic Encounters. Criticism of Saints-Day Festivals and the Formation of Modern Islam in Late 19th and Early 20th Century Egypt”, Die Welt des Islams vol. 47: 319-355.

Schielke, S. (2010) “Second Thoughts about the Anthropology of Islam. Or, How to Make Sense of grand schemes in Everyday Life”. Working Papers 2. Berlin: Zentrum Moderner Orient.

Schielke, S. (2009) “Ambivalent Commitments: Troubles of Morality, Religiosity and Aspiration among Young Egyptians” Journal of Religion in Africa 39: 158-185.

Shklar, J. (1969) Men and Citizens: A Study of Rousseauʼs Social Theory. London: Cambridge University Press

Σειρινίδου, Β., (2012). «Πέρα από τη θάλασσα. Η Μεσόγειος ως διανοητική κατηγορία» ,Διαχρονία 3, σ. 17-27.

Starrett, Gregory (1996) “The Political Economy of Religious Commodities in Cairo” American Anthropologist 97 (1): 51-68.

Τalpade Mohanty, C., “Φεμινιστικές συναντήσεις. Εν-τοπίζοντας την πολιτική της εμπειρίας» στο Α. Αθανασίου (επιμ.) Φεμινιστική θεωρία και Πολιτισμική Κριτική. Αθήνα (2006): νήσος 2006, σ. 473-492.

Triolo, N. (1993), Mediterranean Exotica and the Mafia “Other” or Problems of Representation in Pitrè’s Texts. Cultural Anthropology, 8: 306–316

Τσαντηρόπουλος, Α.(2004). Η βεντέτα στη σύγχρονη ορεινή κεντρική Κρήτη, Αθήνα: Πλέθρον.

Tsibiridou, F. (2007). ‘Silence’ as an idiom of marginality among the Greek Pomaks. In S. &. Voss, The Pomaks in Greece and Bulgaria. A model case for borderland minorities in the Balkans (pp 49-73). München: Verlag Otto Sangher.

Τσιμπιρίδου, Φ. (επιμ.) (2006), «Μουσουλμάνες της Ανατολής»: Αναπαραστάσεις, πολιτισμικές σημασίες και πολιτικές, Αθήνα: Κριτική.

Τσιμπιρίδου, Φ. Δ. Σταματόπουλος (επιμ.) (2008) Οριενταλισμός στα όρια. Από τα Οθωμανικά Βαλκάνια στη σύγχρονη Μέση Ανατολή, Αθήνα: Κριτική.

Tsibiridou, F. (2006). «Writing about Turks and powerful others: Journalistic heteroglossia in Western Thrace». South European Society & Politics, 11(1), 129-144.

Τσιμπιρίδου, Φ. (2005) «Πολιτικές της ετερότητας στο τέλος του 20ου αι. Η πορεία προς την ‘πολυπολιτισμικότητα’ της ελληνικής Θράκης», Επιθεώρηση Κοινωνικών Ερευνών 118: 59-93.

Τσιμπιρίδου, Φ. (επιμ.) Μειονοτικές και μεταναστευτικές εμπειρίες. Βιώνοντας την «κουλτούρα του κράτους», Αθήνα: Κριτική (σε συνεργασία με ΚΕΜΟ), 2009.

Tsibiridou, F. & N. Palantzas (eds) (2013) Myths of the Other in the Balkans. Representations, Social Practices, Performances. Thessaloniki: eBook ISBN: 978-960-8096-05-9 http://afroditi.uom.gr/balkan/

Τσιμπιρίδου, Φ. «Προς μια δημιουργική κριτική του «ανθρώπινου»: εμπειρίες επισφάλειας, συμμόρφωσης και υπονόμευσης από μια τραβεστί κούρδισα φεμινίστρια καλλιτέχνη της Πόλης», στο αφιέρωμα A. Αθανασίου και Γ. Τσιμουρής (επιμ.) Εκτοπίσεις και εντοπίσεις: Μετανάστευση, φύλο και επισφαλείς υποκειμενικότητες σε συνθήκες επιθετικού νεοφιλελευθερισμού Eπιθεώρηση Κοινωνικών Ερευνών, 140-141 B´– Γ´, 2013, 133-151.

Tunç, E.T. (2009) “Between East and West: Consumer Culture and Identity. Negotiation in Contemporary Turkey”, in Joana Pink (eds) Muslim Societies in the Age of Mass Consumption. Politics, Culture and Identity between the Local and the Global, Cambridge Scholars Pub. :73-86.

Vincent J.(ed.) The Anthropology of Politics: A Reader in Ethnography, Theory and Critique. Blackwell Publishing.

Valtchinova, G. (1998), «Anthropology of the Mediterranean and the Perspectives of National Ethnography» στο συλλογικό τόμο Communities and Identities edit. by A. Krasteva, Sofia, pp. 186 – 201.

Van Boeschoten, R. (2001)“Peasants and “Tsorbatzides”. Interactions between Local Politics, Social stratification and the Nation-State in Greek Macedonia.” In F. Lindo, M. van Niekerk (eds) Dedication and Detachment. Essays in Honour of Hans Vermeulen. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.

Winegar, J. (2012). “The Privilege of Revolution: Gender, class, space, and affect in Egypt.” American Ethnologist 39(1): 67-70.

Weidman, A. J. (2003) “Beyond Honor and Shame: Performing Gender in the Mediterranean” Anthropological Quarterly, Volume 76, Number 3, Summer 2003, pp. 519-530

Wikan, U. (1984) “Shame and Honor: A Contestable Pair.” Man 19:635–52.

Wikan, U.“Fieldwork among the poor in Cairo” In Life among the poor in Cairo, pp 1-15. New York: Tavistock, 1980.

Williams R., (1994), Κουλτούρα και Ιστορία. Αθήνα, Γνώση.

Wokler, R. (ed) (1995) Rousseau and Liberty. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Wright, S. «Η πολιτικοποίηση της Κουλτούρας» στο Χ. Δερμετζόπουλος, Μ. Σπυριδάκης (επιμ.) Ανθρωπολογία, Κουλτούρα και Πολιτική. Αθήνα Μεταίχμιο (2004), σ. 111-127

Young, A. (2000) Women become men. Albanian swom virgins. Oxford: Berg pub.